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Basic Principles of Graphic Design

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Generally, all the principles of design apply to any piece you may create. How you apply those principles determines how effective your design is in conveying the desired message and how attractive it appears. There is seldom only one correct way to apply each principle but check your documents to see how well you have applied each of these basic principles of design.


Visual balance comes from arranging elements on the page so that no one section is heavier than the other. Or, a designer may intentionally throw elements out of balance to create tension or a certain mood. Are your page elements all over the place are does each portion of the page balance out the rest? If out of balance, is it done purposely and with a specific intention in mind?

Proximity / Unity

In design, proximity or closeness creates a bond between people and between elements on a page. How close together or far apart elements are placed suggests a relationship (or lack of) between otherwise disparate parts. Unity is also achieved by using a third element to connect distant parts. Are title elements together? Is contact information all in one place? Do frames and boxes tie together or separate related elements in your document?


Alignment brings order to chaos. How you align type and graphics on a page and in relation to each other can make your layout easier or more difficult to read, foster familiarity, or bring excitement to a stale design. Have you used a grid? Is there a common alignment — top, bottom, left, right, or centered — between blocks of text and graphics on the page? Does your text alignment aid or hinder readability? If certain elements are out of alignment, was it done purposefully with a specific design goal in mind?

Graphic Design

Repetition / Consistency

Repeating design elements and consistent use of type and graphics styles within a document shows a reader where to go and helps them navigate your designs and layouts safely. Insure that your document utilizes the principles of repetition, consistency, and unity in page design. Do page numbers appear in the same location from page to page? Are major and minor headlines consistent in size, style, or placement? Have you used a consistent graphic or illustration style throughout?


In design, big and small elements, black and white text, squares and circles, can all create contrast in design. Contrast helps different design elements stand out. Is there enough contrast between your text (size and color) and background (color and pattern) to keep text readable? Is everthing all the same size even when some elements are more important than others?

White Space

Designs that try to cram too much text and graphics onto the page are uncomfortable and may be impossible to read. White space gives your design breathing room. Do you have enough space between columns of text? Does text run into frames or graphics? Do you have a generous margin? You can also have too much white space if items float on the page without any anchor.


Author: Jan Rajtoral

Jan Rajtoral AKA Gonzo the Great is the Founder of and Designer at gonzodesign, providing design services across the full spectrum of Brand Identity, Graphic Design, Print and Advertising Design & Website Design.

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